On August 29, 2009 the UN General Assembly appointed the President of Bolivia Evo Morales Ayma Juan Hero World Mother Earth. " On delivery of the distinction, the president of the UN General Assembly, Miguel D'Escoto Brockmann, said President Morales is "the best example and paradigm of love to mother earth in this world", as demonstrated Evo environmental problems "caused by bad values, individualism, greed, selfishness and social and environmental irresponsibility can only be overcome by the spirit and practice of solidarity." D'Escoto said that "our indigenous values are expressed through it."The president, meanwhile, stressed that the experience of Bolivia, to bring "live in harmony with the defense of Mother Earth," has an impact at international level and is a tribute to the ancestors.Since this time, Morales raised the need to approve United Nations Rights of Mother Earth.
Along these lines, the Bolivian government in Cochabamba organized the World Conference of Peoples on Climate Change and the Rights of the Mother Earth ", from 19 to 23 April this year. The Conference took global importance only by the naive words of the President in his inaugural speech, saying that "when men eat those chicken (loaded with female hormones) have deviations in their being like men", or "pattern baldness appears normal is a disease in Europe, most of them are bald. " These two phrases and famous, Evo added a bunch of nonsense to climate environmentalism mix with the attack on the Coca-Cola (which serves to butcher the bathroom), the potato in the Netherlands (which supposedly has fish hormones), the GM (who says he used to eat but not for food) or Western medicines (which opposes the alleged remedy chamomile as indigenous). The Conference, now discredited internationally since then, recorded his findings in the Agreement of the People. Its most prominent feature is the repeated demand drastic cutbacks in emissions of greenhouse gases in rich countries (50%) and the demand for cash payment of matching funds to all developing countries for the consequences of change climate "caused by them", while the part of developing countries is absolutely no commitment is assumed, moreover, is unacceptable for the establishment of any constraints on their development. It is proposed that the forests and parks and nature reserves should be given to the peasant villages, indigenous and native to the handle in its own way, and that the funds for carbon storage should be given to Southern countries for them the managed independently without any constraints. It also raises the funds should be delivered per hectare of existing forest and no reduction per hectare of deforestation, which can be given the paradox that the same funds provided by carbon store used to finance the clearing.
The other document produced in the Summit is the "Draft Universal Declaration of Mother Earth", a string of well-intentioned principles designed to establish rights for "Mother Earth and all beings who compose it (...) without distinction of any kind, such as between organic and inorganic beings, species, origin, use for humans, or any other status. " However, its generic definition (right to life and exist, to be respected, clean air, to comprehensive health care, etc.) And the generality of the subjects of law (Mother Earth, organic and inorganic beings) leaves empty content to this Statement, which is little more than a toast to the sun. According to the thesis of Morales and the Agreement of the People, all the ills of mankind come from the northern countries and their capitalist model. Consequently, we must break this pattern of development and demand that rich countries pay poorer countries so they can "live well", which is not to live in abundance but have basic needs met. The Agreement petition to agro business and presented as false solutions to the biofuels, geo-engineering, nanotechnology, and the like Terminator technology. At the same time, complaint and the capitalist model imposes mega infrastructure projects, extractive projects invade territories, water privatization and commodification and militarized them expelled from the territories of indigenous peoples and peasants, preventing food sovereignty and deepening socio-environmental crisis. It is instructive to contrast these statements and surveys with the current reality evista project. Bolivia is primarily from the exploitation of hydrocarbons (especially gas), which in 2009 generated 51% of export earnings, followed in importance mining (22%), manufacturing (22%) and production Soy agribusiness (5%). Thus, Bolivia is a country heavily extractive profile, and Evo has not fought not only this model but has fostered since its political project is financed with funds generated specifically for the export of gas. For its part, the government has faced soybean agro-industrial production, deforestation annually 60 000 hectares of forest and has so far cleared nearly one million hectares, but merely to encourage production by small producers through Enterprise Support for Food Production (EMAP). A central plank of government policy are the mega projects of infrastructure: roads, power lines, railroads, pipelines, dams, etc. This will work together with neighbors and friends, such as Brazil and Venezuela, with whom he plans to build a network of roads in the Amazon, the establishment of a trans-Amazon pipeline or the construction of multiple dams on the Madeira River and its tributaries. It should be noted that this is the main tributary of the southern half of the Amazon basin, which provides the large amount of sediment Amazon Andean and is among the 10 largest rivers, flowing and most biodiverse in the world, in addition to accommodating large numbers of Indigenous Peoples.
In Bolivia highlights the impetus given to the approval of projects for road construction throughout the Amazon region through national parks of enormous ecological importance where many Amazonian indigenous peoples live. Amongst these highway Villa Tunari-San Ignacio, which crosses the National Park and Indigenous Territory Isiboro-Secure (TIPNIS), affecting Yuquis, Yurakaré and Mojenos (and benefiting settlers, coca growers and traders Cochabamba), and the road Apollo -Ixiamas-Puerto Chivé, which crosses the Madidi National Park (one of the most biologically diverse natural reserves in the world), affecting communities Takano (and benefiting settlers and Andean coca growers). At the same time, the government is promoting the development of projects for the construction of dams in major rivers of the country's northern Amazon (Beni and Madre de Dios), in coordination and with funding (credit) of the government of Brazil, is building two large dams on the Madeira River (San Antonio and Jira). These projects will directly affect Takanas communities, esse-exas, and Chacobos Cavineño in Bolivia, as well as other indigenous peoples in the Brazilian side. Note that the projected dam Cachuela Esperanza on the Rio Beni, flood an area of 690 km2 (three times more than either Brazil) to produce 990 MW (three times less than the two Brazilian), which the company The Brazilian will be built and that energy that will produce for export to Brazil. However, this dam will be paid with interest by the Bolivian government and is expected to seriously increase the flood plains of Beni, which affect much of the department of Beni (more than 100 000 km2) seriously impacting the lives of hundreds of indigenous and peasant communities. Finally, it should be noted that the construction of dams in Amazonian soils generates greenhouse gas emissions than thermal power plants that run on gas, coal or diesel from the breakdown of the vast amount of organic matter present in the flooded area. Another focus of evista policy, shared by the major parties and leaders of the East, is the exploitation of natural resources in extractive megaprojects made, mostly in indigenous territories. Section 319 of the New Bolivian Political Constitution states that "The industrialization of natural resources will be priority in economic policies in the framework of respect and protection of the environment and the rights of nations and peoples of indigenous origin and farmers their territories. " That same constitution establishes the right of compulsory prior consultation (but only for consultation) regarding the exploitation of nonrenewable natural resources in indigenous territories, and considering the prebendal that characterizes the actions of the government and the poverty of the communities you can imagine how to buy the approval of the leaders of the megaprojects.
Currently, Bolivia has contracted out the operation of a whole mountain of iron in the Mutún, near the Pantanal, which will be exploited in the open, with predictable consequences for aquatic ecosystems. In the southwestern corner of the country is in the process of choosing the company to operate under concession Salar de Uyuni for the extraction of lithium. In the northern Amazon, one of the most biodiverse regions of the planet, they want to establish several oil and gas projects, which affect the Madidi National Park. In southern Chaco wells are being expanded in order to supply the growing demand for new product gas export contracts signed with Argentina and Brazil. On the other hand, stimulates evismo Eastern Amazonian colonization of the country by farmers Andean (Quechua and Aymara) are distributed "waste" lands for the cultivation of coca and other products using chemicals, cutting forests and displacing indigenous lowlands. This process of colonization by hundreds of thousands of small farmers is the second leading cause of deforestation in the country behind agribusiness. But Evo supports not only them but also farmers mechanized cochabambinos felled forest with their tractors in industrial quantities in the region between Santa Cruz and Trinidad, Guarayo territory to grow rice and soybeans as travelers in a regime shifting cultivation on a large scale agro-industrial model very similar to Santa Cruz. The environmental costs of this activity are enormous, but the government encouraged as part of "food sovereignty." Therefore, in practice we see the evismo has a vision so extractive as were previous leaders of the country, both Republican and colonial period. Enrichment does not arise in terms of productivity, but is based in milking extreme of the often invoked Pachamama. And the traditional extractive added Bolivian development at an intensity that Bolivia never met before. The construction of roads and power lines is a real need in a country with a quite poor road communication and where there are still departments whose cities are supplied by generators of light engines. However, it makes sense to develop and maintain a speech internationally diametrically opposed to your agenda. On the other hand there is, on the president, a total disregard to any environmental issues related to the construction of such infrastructure, with an attitude that draws from memory so poor Franco and still pervades the Spanish landscape. This attitude, moreover shared by his friends Lula and Chavez, probably has its origin in the president's personal experience as a coca growers' leader in a region where there is a National Park (the TIPNIS) who has been victimized and deforested at its southern end by settlers (who still represents the Evo as the leader of the six Federations of Coca Growers of the Tropic of Cochabamba) facing indigenous lowland (Yukis, Yuracarés and Mojenos), environmental NGOs and state institutions. In the past it was established, globally, a kind of strategic alliance between environmentalists and indigenous people, although it has paid off, has also led to a distortion in the international perception of the behaviors, attitudes and perceptions of indigenous people . Recently Paul Estefanoni distinguishes between Pachamama indianismo environmentalism and eco-smart. I agree with his thesis. Indiana, that is, the feelings of the indigenous anti-systemic unfiltered imported seeking economic development above all. The first thing I asked Mojenos communities in my first meeting as a director of an NGO were resources for clearing. Indigenous people want roads, tractors, chainsaws, electric power, education. The eco-smart environmentalism arises how to troubleshoot and address the environmental problems generated by the development so as to reconcile human activities led to increased prosperity with the preservation of a healthy environment and functional. In contrast, Pachamama is a corruption of the indigenous worldview concerned to adapt to an anti-capitalist gestated in the universities and NGOs from the north, seeking to establish their criticism of the system on the ideological foundations of ancient thought, and it sought legitimacy that pays off in a Western world sunk into a deep spiritual crisis. So, Evo and Europeans primarily pachamamas down a sort of mutually beneficial partnership that allows each root antisystemic his speech at the Indian and other international acquire some leadership. It is in this context that we understand initiatives such as the Climate Summit in Cochabamba, or the United Nations recognition of Evo Morales. However, there is nowhere to be missed. Pachamama is teetering at the time that the President took the floor and decide to skip the official speech prepared by his advisors (where, incidentally, was lost at every turn, stumbling over and over again to pronounce words and concepts unknown) and put a piece of his own. Evo is indigenous, non-feminist or progressive, or green, and when he speaks in his own voice masses who support Western anti-globalization can not hide the laughter condescending or mocking whistles. The alliance, then, appears naked, and you can see the plume.
Jordi Pascual Sala